Combinatorics on words has arisen independently within several branches of mathematics, for instance, number theory, group theory and probability, and appears frequently in problems related to theoretical computer science. The first unified treatment of the area was given in Lothaire’s Combinatorics on Words. Since its publication, the area has developed and the authors now aim to present several more topics as well as giving deeper insights into subjects that were discussed in the previous volume. An introductory chapter provides the reader with all the necessary background material. There are numerous examples, full proofs whenever possible and a notes section discussing further developments in the area.