Coffee is a drink made from the seeds obtained from the coffee plant. Also known as Roasted coffee beans Today, coffee is grown in more than 70 countries around the world. Green coffee, which is not roasted, is one of the most traded agricultural products in the world. And now, coffee has become the most popular beverage as well.
For the main varieties of coffee that are commonly grown, there are 2 varieties, coffee Arabica (Coffee arabica) and Robusta coffee (Coffee canephora) . Arabica coffee is a coffee that has been More popular to drink than Robusta coffee Because Robusta coffee has a bitter taste and less flavor than Arabica coffee. For this reason Coffee grown in more than 3 quarters of the world is Arabica coffee.
However, Robusta coffee can still prove that Causing disease less than Arabica coffee It can also be grown in an environment where Arabica coffee cannot grow. Therefore, coffee businesses tend to use Robusta coffee to replace Arabica coffee. Because it is cheaper
In addition to the two main coffee varieties, there are also Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca, which are believed to be local plants in Liberia and southern Sudan, respectively.
1. Arabica coffee
- Common names Arabian coffee, Coffee, Kofi, Koffie, Brazillian.
- Scientific name Coffea arabica L. is in the needle family (RUBIACEAE).
The parts of the Arabica coffee
- Arabica coffee tree Is a plant native to Africa Ethiopia But the Arabs were the first nation to bring coffee to drink Therefore, the Latin name of the coffee used the word “arabica” (arabica) meaning Arabs. In which the coffee tree is organized into small shrubs With a height of about 2-4 meters, currently cultivated very well in tropical and semi-cold
- Arabica coffee leaf The leaves are single leaves Opposite The leaves are parallel or oval, pointed at the base of the leaves and slightly pointed leaves. The edge of the leaf is smooth. The leaves are about 8-12 cm wide and 15-20 cm long, the leaf is smooth. Sometimes wave With ears between the petiole
- Arabica coffee flower Flowering into axillary bouquet The petals are white. Stick together into a tube Fragrant flowers
- Arabica coffee fruit, the fruit is fresh, the fruit is oval, round and round. The young fruit is green. But when cooked, it will turn red
The distinctive point of Arabica coffee is its high aroma and aroma. Making it feel lively and energetic by drinking this type of coffee with low caffeine content Is a high quality coffee The fragrance is second to none. Just not very well known Due to lack of good promotion and public relations In Thailand, coffee is grown in the north on the high mountains.
2. Robusta coffee
- Robusta coffee, common name Robusta coffee
- Robusta coffee Scientific name Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Rogerhner (synonyms Coffea robusta L. Linden)
The components of Robusta coffee
- Robusta coffee tree Stems grow from roots. Has joint and segmental features The base of the leaf is in the trunk. When the tree grows up, the leaves will fall to the base of the leaves. There are 2 types of buds, the upper and lower eyes. The upper bud will branch out into the first branch. It is a branch lying parallel to the ground with joint and joint. Each item will have flower buds that will continue to be attached to coffee. The lower eye is broken into branches. The branches stand upright like a trunk and not fruit, but can create branches that give fruit. Which is also called branch 1 and branch 1 is also able to branch further into branches 2 and branch 2 can also split into branches 3 where these branches will occur In the form of a pair of alternate indentations on the trunk or branches When cutting coffee stems The lower bud on the trunk is branched up. The branches will split into branches 1, 2 and 3, then the flowers and coffee will continue to produce. The coffee plant will be able to propagate by seed.
Robusta coffee tree
- Coffee leaves are single leaves. Born at the opposite side The base of the leaves and the leaves are tapered. The wave edge is wavy. In the middle of the broad leaf The skin is smooth and soft. With a leaf on the stomach Each leaf has an estimated mouth of 3 million to 6 million holes, with Robusta being smaller than the mouth of Arabica coffee. But will have more numbers The leaves are around 250 days old, while the petiole is short.
- Coffee flowers. Normally, coffee flowers are a single, complete flower. There are 4-9 petals with 4-5 petals and 5 stamens. There are 2 ovaries. In each room there are 1 egg. The coffee has 2 seeds. The seeds are grouped into groups at the base. The leaves on the branches of the branches 1, 2 or 3, each flower group has about 2-20 flowers. The flowers will leave the branches from the joints near the trunk to the end of the branches. Normally, the coffee tree will bloom according to the branches. Article that will yield dividends in the following year will not bloom and give results.
- The coffee is a fruit with a short stem, raw fruit is green. When ripe, it will turn yellow, orange and red. The coffee will consist of bark. The area is yellow (When ripe, has a sweet taste) and the shell covering the seed Between the shell and the seed there is a thin membrane covering the seed. Which we call “Seed coat” in each fruit will have 2 seeds mixed together. The splicing rods are flat inside. There is a groove in the middle of the seed, 1 groove, the outer part is curved. The characteristics of the seeds are single seeds or seed tones. Sometimes, if the pollination is not complete Will make only one seed (Representing 5-10%), which will look like a round oval seeds. There is a groove in the middle of the groove. This kind of seed is called ” pee berry “.
Highlights of Robusta coffee In most cases, we will use Robusta coffee to produce instant coffee. Or mixed with some Arabica coffee In order to produce a roasted coffee with a different flavor Robusta coffee is unique in terms of the body. After drinking it will feel the softness of the neck. This coffee will have twice the amount of caffeine than Arabica coffee. Robusta coffee in Thailand is cultivated very much in the south on flat land. Such as in Nakhon Si Thammarat and Chumphon provinces. Source: https://medthai.com
4 regions that are important coffee production areas in the world are
1. South America The
countries in South America are considered the number one source of coffee in the world. Which countries are the places to produce coffee Able to produce up to 3.8 million tons of coffee or 47 percent of the world’s coffee production The number one major producer in this area is Brazil and Colombia, which is the 3rd largest coffee producer in the world and Cham with Peru. Most products are Arabica coffee. The famous coffee is known as the “Brasilian Santos” of Brazil, Brazil and “Suremo” from the Mount Andes of Colombia.
2. Southeast Asia
South East Asian countries Able to produce 1.9 million tons of coffee or 23% of the world’s coffee production Is an important source of Robusta coffee production in the world. Robusta coffee can be produced in more than half of all Robusta coffee products. The country’s largest producer in this area is Vietnam, which is considered the second largest coffee producer in the world, followed by Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand and famous coffee. And is known as “Man-Heling” of Sumatra-Indonesia and “Anola” of Java-Indonesia.
3. Africa African
countries can produce 0.83 million tons of coffee or 10 percent of the world’s coffee production. The coffee produced is Arabica coffee. And Robusta coffee The major producing countries in this region are Ethiopia, Uganda, Ivory-Coast. And Kenya. Coffee that is famous and known is “Kiriman Munro” from the mountains Kiri Munro from Roma Ethiopia’s famous coffee is Ethiopia, “Harrar Longberry” “Sidamo” and “Kaffa”.
4. Central America.
Countries in Central America can produce 0.79 million tons of coffee, or 9 percent of the world’s coffee production. Most coffee products are Arabica coffee. The major producing countries in this region are Honduras, Guatemala, Costa Rica and El Salvador.